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CV Sarana Niaga, Jl. Tebet Barat 6 No. 2, Telp. 8313867, HP Andy Ryanto 08161132499, Email Sarana, Website click here. Developer, Contractor, Interior. Berpengalaman sejak tahun 1976, membangun lebih dari 200 Rumah Tinggal, Townhouse, Kantor, Ruko (Rumah Toko), Renovasi Rumah Sakit etc. YM Yahoo! Messenger
TB512 Property, Jl. Tebet Barat 5 No. 12, Telp. 8356185, HP Safri 081511401617, Email tb512, Website click here. Jual Beli Property, Tanah, Rumah, Ruko, Townhouse etc.YM Yahoo! Messenger

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Toko Bangunan
Ubin Singa
Jl. Tebet Barat Raya No.10, Tlp 8291644 atau 8356769. Sedia bahan2 bangunan, kayu, batu bata, semen, pasir, pipa, cat, baut, Gas LPG, etc.
Buka Senin-Sabtu.
Toko Bangunan SUMBER REJEKI Jl. Tebet Raya, Telp. 8297061, Email none Website none. Buka Senin-Sabtu. Sedia Aneka Merk Pompa Air, Paralon, Cat Minyak, Tinner, Vernis, Pelitur, Cat Tembok, Paku, Baut Sekrup, Lem Kayu, Lem Besi, Peralatan Listrik etc.
Toko Bangunan SINAR SAKTI Jl. Tebet Barat Dalam Raya No. 90, Telp. 8290853, Email none Website none. Buka Tiap Hari. Sedia Building Materials, Semen, Bata, Pasir, Paralon, Cat Minyak, Tinner, Vernis, Pelitur, Cat Tembok, Paku, Baut Sekrup, Lem Kayu, Lem Besi, Peralatan Listrik etc.

Tools Shop
SOLUSI, Ali M.S. Jl. Tebet Barat Dalam Raya No. 104A, Telp. 8297383, Fax. 8301409, HP 08161801531, Email none Website none. Buka Tiap Hari. Sedia Power Tools & Accessories.

My Favorite: ACE Hardware Jl Warung Buncit Raya No. 98 Pejaten Barat - Jakarta Selatan
Phone: 021-79181915 Fax:
021-79181003 Email:
ACE Hardware Established in 1995 as a subsidiary company of Kawan Lama Sejahtera, PT. #1 commercial and industrial supplies company in Indonesia. PT Ace Hardware Indonesia is the master franchise-license holder in Indonesia from ace Hardware corporation USA. The Premiere Ace Hardware store was inaugurated in Supermal Karawaci Tangerang on 29 November 1995. Today, Ace has develop to be one of the leading home improvement companies with a chain of stores in big cities in Indonesia. Committed to high quality service, Ace Hardware Indonesia is certified for Quality Management System ISO 9001-2000, making the company the first certified hardware store in Indonesia. With clear long term objectives "ACE Vision 2010", continuous improvements and new concepts ACE is striving to be the #1 " Do-It-Yourself". With more expanded floor space, wider array of quality home improvement products from all over the world will be developed further to meet fast and growing demand in Indonesian market.

VENUS, Pasar Tebet Barat Lantai Dasar, Phone 8291568 (Elektronik) atau 8352963 (Bangunan) Toko Elektronik, Alat-Alat Listrik dan Bangunan serta Selang dan Regulator Kompor Gas LPG.
Buka Tiap Hari, Hari Minggu ke 3 Libur.
Toko Besi Sukabumi, Jl. Tebet Barat Dalam Raya No. 72
Pokasa, pembuat panel listrik
POKASA, Power Kalista Satria PT
Jl. Pondok Bambu II B-15 Pondok Bambu - Jakarta 13430
Fax. 021-8660 4333, 863 0240 Telp. 021-8660 1666, 8660 2482, 861 7875
Cellp. 0818934831, Sms. 0811160090
Toko LANCAR JAYA, Jl. Jatinegara Barat No. 115B Tel 8560251
Jual Karpet, Terpal, Kasur, Spring Bed etc.
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Building material
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Building material is any material which is used for a construction purpose. See this outside definition. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, sand, wood and rocks, even twigs and leaves have been used to construct buildings. Apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-made products are in use, some more and some less synthetic. The manufacture of building materials is an established industry in many countries and the use of these materials is typically segmented into specific speciality trades, such as carpentry, plumbing, roofing and insulation work. This reference deals with habitats and structures including homes.

Natural materials

Building materials can be generally categorized into two sources, natural and synthetic. Natural building materials are those that are unprocessed or minimally processed by industry, such as lumber or glass. Synthetic materials are made in industrial settings after much human manipulations, such as plastics and petroleum based paints. Both have their uses.

Mud, stone, and fibrous plants are the most basic building materials, aside from tents made of flexible materials such as cloth or skins. People all over the world have used these three materials together to create homes to suit their local weather conditions. In general stone and/or brush are used as basic structural components in these buildings, while mud is used to fill in the space between, acting as a type of concrete and insulation.

A basic example is wattle and daub mostly used as permanent housing in tropical countries or as summer structures by ancient northern peoples.


The tent used to be the home of choice among nomadic groups the world over. Two well known types include the conical teepee and the circular yurt. It has been revived as a major construction technique with the development of tensile architecture and synthetic fabrics. Modern buildings can be made of flexible material such as fabric membranes, and supported by a system of steel cables or internal (air pressure.)

Mud and clay
Sod buildings in Iceland

The amount of each material used leads to different styles of buildings. The deciding factor is usually connected with the quality of the soil being used. Larger amounts of clay usually mean using the cob/adobe style, while low clay soil is usually associated with sod building. The other main ingredients include more or less sand/gravel and straw/grasses. Rammed earth is both an old and newer take on creating walls, once made by compacting clay soils between planks by hand, now forms and mechanical pneumatic compressors are used.

Soil and especially clay is good thermal mass; it is very good at keeping temperatures at a constant level. Homes built with earth tend to be naturally cool in the summer heat and warm in cold weather. Clay holds heat or cold, releasing it over a period of time like stone. Earthen walls change temperature slowly, so artificially raising or lowering the temperature can use more resources than in say a wood built house, but the heat/coolness stays longer.

Peoples building with mostly dirt and clay, such as cob, sod, and adobe, resulted in homes that have been built for centuries in western and northern Europe as well as the rest of the world, and continue to be built, though on a smaller scale. Some of these buildings have remained habitable for hundreds of years.

Mont Saint Michel

Rock structures have existed for as long as history can recall. It is the longest lasting building material available, and is usually readily available. There are many types of rock through out the world all with differing attributes that make them better or worse for particular uses. Rock is a very dense material so it gives a lot of protection too, its main draw-back as a material is its weight and awkwardness. Its energy density is also considered a big draw-back, as stone is hard to keep warm without using large amounts of heating resources.

Dry-stone walls have been built for as long as humans have put one stone on top of another. Eventually different forms of mortar were used to hold the stones together, cement being the most commonplace now.

The granite-strewn uplands of Dartmoor National Park, United Kingdom, for example, provided ample resources for early settlers. Circular huts were constructed from loose granite rocks throughout the Neolithic and early Bronze Age, and the remains of an estimated 5,000 can still be seen today. Granite continued to be used throughout the Medieval period (see Dartmoor longhouse) and into modern times. Slate is another stone type, commonly used as roofing material in the United Kingdom and other parts of the world where it is found.

Mostly stone buildings can be seen in most major cities, some civilizations built entirely with stone such as the Pyramids in Egypt, the Aztec pyramids and the remains of the Inca civilization.


Thatch is one of the oldest of building materials known; grass is a good insulator and easily harvested. Many African tribes have lived in homes made completely of grasses year round. In Europe, thatch roofs on homes were once prevalent but the material fell out of favour as industrialization and improved transport increased the availability of other materials. Today, though, the practice is undergoing a revival. In the Netherlands, for instance, many of new builds too have thatched roofs with special ridge tiles on top.

Toda tribe hut

Brush structures are built entirely from plant parts and are generally found in tropical and sub-tropical areas, such as rainforests, where very large leaves can be used in the building. Native Americans often built brush structures for resting and living in, too. These are built mostly with branches, twigs and leaves, and bark, similar to a beaver's lodge. These were variously named wikiups, lean-tos, and so forth


Ice was used by the Inuit for igloos, but has also been used for ice hotels as a tourist attraction in northern areas that might not otherwise see many winter tourists.

Modern laminated lumber

Wood is a product of trees, and sometimes other fibrous plants, used for construction purposes when cut or pressed into lumber and timber, such as boards, planks and similar materials. It is a generic building material and is used in building just about any type of structure in most climates. Wood can be very flexible under loads, keeping strength while bending, and is incredibly strong when compressed vertically. There are many differing qualities to the different types of wood, even among same tree species. This means specific species are better for various uses than others. And growing conditions are important for deciding quality.

Historically, wood for building large structures was used in its unprocessed form as logs. The trees were just cut to the needed length, sometimes stripped of bark, and then notched or lashed into place.

In earlier times, and in some parts of the world, many country homes or communities had a personal wood-lot from which the family or community would grow and harvest trees to build with. These lots would be tended to like a garden.

With the invention of mechanizing saws came the mass production of dimensional lumber. This made buildings quicker to put up and more uniform. Thus the modern western style home was made.

Brick and Block
Brick and timber construction

A brick is a block made of kiln-fired material, usually clay or shale, but also may be of lower quality mud, etc. Clay bricks are formed in a moulding (the soft mud method), or in commercial manufacture more frequently by extruding clay through a die and then wire-cutting them to the proper size (the stiff mud process).

Bricks were widely used as a building material in the 1700, 1800 and 1900s. This was probably due to the fact that it was much more flame retardant than wood in the ever crowding cities, and fairly cheap to produce.

Cinder blocks replaced clay bricks in the late 20th century. They are made mostly with concrete.

An important low-cost building material in developing countries is the Sandcrete block, which is weaker but cheaper than fired clay bricks.

Falkirk Wheel

Concrete is a composite building material made from the combination of aggregate (composite) and a binder such as cement. The most common form of concrete is Portland cement concrete, which consists of mineral aggregate (generally gravel and sand), portland cement and water. After mixing, the cement hydrates and eventually hardens into a stone-like material. When used in the generic sense, this is the material referred to by the term concrete.

For a concrete construction of any size, as concrete has a rather low tensile strength, it is generally strengthened using steel rods or bars (known as rebars). This strengthened concrete is then referred to as reinforced concrete. In order to minimise any air bubbles, that would weaken the structure, a vibrator is used to eliminate any air that has been entrained when the liquid concrete mix is poured around the ironwork. Concrete has been the predominant building material in this modern age due to its longevity, formability, and ease of transport.

MIT Stata Center

Metal is used as structural framework for larger buildings such as skyscrapers, or as an external surface covering. There are many types of metals used for building. Steel is a metal alloy whose major component is iron, and is the usual choice for metal structural building materials. It is strong, flexible, and if refined well and/or treated lasts a long time. Corrosion is metal's prime enemy when it comes to longevity.

The lower density and better corrosion resistance of aluminium alloys and tin sometimes overcome their greater cost. Brass was more common in the past, but is usually restricted to specific uses or specialty items today.

Metal figures quite prominently in prefabricated structures such as the Quonset hut, and can be seen used in most cosmopolitan cities. It requires a great deal of human labor to produce metal, especially in the large amounts needed for the building industries.

Other metals used include titanium, chrome, gold, silver. Titanium can be used for structural purposes, but it is much more expensive than steel. Chrome, gold, and silver are used as decoration, because these materials are expensive and lack structural qualities such as tensile strength or hardness.

British Museum Great Court

Glassmaking is considered an art form as well as an industrial process or material.

Clear windows have been used since the invention of glass to cover small openings in a building. They provided humans with the ability to both let light into rooms while at the same time keeping inclement weather outside. Glass is generally made from mixtures of sand and silicates, in a very hot fire stove called a kiln and is very brittle. Very often additives are added to the mixture when making to produce glass with shades of colors or various characteristics (such as bullet proof glass, or light emittance).

The use of glass in architectural buildings has become very popular in the modern culture. Glass "curtain walls" can be used to cover the entire facade of a building, or it can be used to span over a wide roof structure in a "space frame". These uses though require some sort of frame to hold sections of glass together, as glass by its self is too brittle and would require an overly large kiln to be used to span such large areas by itself.


Ceramics used to be just a specialized form of clay-pottery firing in kilns, but it has evolved into more technical areas though kiln firing is still usually a major step in its creation. Ceramics tend to be more water resistant and heat resistant than other types of pottery, due to its high firing temperature.

Ceramics often are used to make such things as tiles, fixtures, etc. Ceramics are mostly used as fixtures, ceramic floors, walls, counter-tops, even ceilings. Many countries use ceramic roofing tiles to cover many buildings.

Other uses of ceramics include international space programs, which have used ceramic tiles to cover the undersides of space craft such as the Space Shuttle program; high temperature engines, and dental implants and synthetic bones.

Cement composites

Cement bonded composites are an important class of building materials. These products are made of hydrated cement paste that binds wood or alike particles or fibers to make pre-cast building components. Various fiberous materials including paper and fiberglass have been used as binders.

Wood and natural fibres are composed of various soluble organic compounds like carbohydrates, glycosides and phenolics. These compounds are known to retard cement setting. Therefore, before using a wood in making cement boned composites, its compatibility with cement is assessed.

Wood-cement compatibility is the ratio of a parameter related to the property of a wood-cement composite to that of a neat cement paste. The compatibility is often expressed as a percentage value. To determine wood-cement compatibility, methods based on different properties are used, such as, hydration characteristics, strength, interfacial bond and morphology. Various methods are used by researchers such as the measurement of hydration characteristics of a cement-aggregate mix [1-3]; the comparison of the mechanical properties of cement-aggregate mixes [4-5] and the visual assessment of microstructural properties of the wood-cement mixes [6]. It has been found that the hydration test by measuring the change in hydration temperature with time is the most convenient method. Recently, Karade et al. [7] have reviewed these methods of compatibility assessment and suggested a method based on the ‘maturity concept’ i.e. taking in consideration both time and temperature of cement hydration reaction.


Power tool
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A power tool is a tool powered by an electric motor, a compressed air motor, or a gasoline engine. Power tools are classified as either stationary or portable, where portable means handheld. They are used in industry, in construction, and around the house for cutting, shaping, drilling, sanding, painting, grinding, and polishing. Stationary power tools for metalworking are usually called machine tools. The term machine tool is not usually applied to stationary power tools for woodworking, although such usage is occasionally heard, and in some cases, such as drill presses and bench grinders, the exact same tool is used for both woodworking and metalworking.

The lathe is the oldest power tool, being known to the ancient Egyptians (albeit in a hand-powered form). Early industrial revolution-era factories had batteries of power tools driven by belts from overhead shafts. The prime power source was a water wheel or (later) a steam engine. The introduction of the electric motor (and electric distribution networks) in the 1880s made possible the self-powered stationary and portable tools we know today.

Stationary power tools are prized not only for their speed, but for their accuracy. A table saw not only cuts faster than a hand saw, but the cuts are smoother, straighter and more square than even the most skilled man can do with a hand saw. Lathes produce truly round objects that cannot be made in any other way.

An electric motor is the universal choice to power stationary tools. Portable electric tools may be either corded or battery-powered. At present (2007) the limitations of battery life, energy capacity, and cost keep the corded versions on the market. Compressed air is the customary power source for nailers and paint sprayers. A few tools (called powder-actuated tools) are powered by explosive cartridges. Gasoline-powered tools such as chain saws and weed whackers are made for outdoor use.

Common power tools include the drill, various types of saws, the router, the electric sander, and the lathe.

The term power tool is also used in a more general sense, meaning a technique for greatly simplifying a complex or difficult task.