Safri Ishak



Version 03-JUL-2016
Email: safrish@yahoo.com

Shoutbox


Berikut kisah saya mulai dari tempat kelahiran saya di Muntok Bangka, ikut Mak sama Ayah merantau ke Jakarta tahun 1961, pindah ke Rumbai Pekanbaru tahun 1962, kemudian pindah lagi ke Jakarta tahun 1964.
Tahun 1975 saya beserta istri saya Erry dan anak kami Erwin merantau ke Rumbai Pekanbaru, tahun 2004 saya pensiun dan kami pindah ke Jakarta.
Bulan Maret 2009 saya, istri saya dan anak kami Winry pulang kampung trip ke Muntok.
Bulan Maret 2010 saya kembali pulang ke Mentok bersama istri saya Erry, kakak Saya Farida, adik saya Rospita serta ipar saya Poetro (suami Rospita), photo pulang kampung trip 2 ini saya upload ke FB Album Pulang Kampung Maret 2010.

Muntok (Bangka)

Saya lahir di Muntok tahun 1948, Ayah saya Ishak Moesa dan Mak saya Hasnah Djalil. Kakak saya Farida dan adik-adik saya Tamrin, Erman, Mashuri, Mansur, Rosvita, Noviar dan Rosmala. Kami tinggal di Kampung Keranggan Ulu. Ayah bekerja sebagai karyawan Tambang Timah Bangka sebagai mekanik. Kakek dari pihak Mak, Djalil (Atok Tebing) berdagang ikan di pasar, setiap hari saya dan adik saya Tamrin ke pasar untuk mengambil ikan dari Kakek, kami mengambil ikan untuk lauk hari itu dan sekalian minta uang jajan sama kakek ... asyik. .... . Biasanya hal tersebut kami lakukan setelah saya dan kakak saya Farida pulang dari mengantar kue ke kedai. Mak membuat laksa dan roti goreng dan pagi pagi sekali kami mengantar ke pasar dan sore harinya kakak saya mengambil hasil jualan.

Kisah lebih lanjut waktu di Mentok Bangka, silahkan klik disini.



Join IPBB forum
Join Muntok Milis
The Spirit of Budak Bangka
All About Bangka Belitung
Bangka Posted by Amelia

Pulang Kampung ke Muntok (Bangka) 06-09-MAR-2009

Hampir 45 tahun saya tidak pulang kampung, akhirnya setelah beberapa bulan persiapan diantaranya menghubungi adik kami Noviar Ishak dan memesan online ticket, maka tepat pada hari Jum'at tanggal 06-MAR-2009 bertepatan dengan ulang tahun anak kami Winry, kami memulai perjalanan pulang kampung.

Pukul enam pagi kurang beberapa menit, kami, Winry, istri saya dan saya berangkat menuju Bandara Soekarno Hatta pakai taxi, lewat Pancoran Tebet, jalan tol dalam kota dan sampai di airport jam tujuh kurang seperempat.

Kisah lebih lanjut waktu Pulang Kampung ke Muntok Bangka, silahkan klik disini.


Jakarta (I)

Ayah dan Mak saya beserta kami anak-anak kandung beliau sebanyak delapan orang merantau ke Jakarta dari Mentok Bangka pada tahun 1961, saya anak nomor dua dan pada waktu itu umur saya 13 tahun, adik saya yang paling kecil Noviar baru berumur dua tahun. Kami berangkat dari Mentok dengan menggunakan kapal Koan Maru dengan rute dari Medan menuju Jakarta dan singgah di Tanjung Pinang dan Mentok. Karena kapal tidak bisa merapat, maka para penumpang dan barang-barang bawaan diangkut dengan tongkang dari pelabuhan ke kapal. Sampai di kapal perlu usaha extra untuk naik ke kapal, karena ombak agak besar dan tongkang terayun-ayun oleh ombak, di kapal kami dapat tempat di deck dekat haluan kapal. Waktu tempuh dari Mentok ke Jakarta sekitar 24 jam, di deck udara terasa dingin karena banyak angin apalagi pada waktu malam hari. Dalam perjalanan itulah pertama kali kami sekeluarga harus antri untuk mendapatkan makanan.

Kisah lebih lanjut waktu di Jakarta, silahkan klik disini.

Muntok white peppercorns

Did you know it ? When ripening, pepper fruits turn yellow-red. When it is harvested almost ripe, the outer hull turns black in drying. If this outer hull is removed, the peppercorns will remain white in drying.
Origins : as indicated by its name this Muntok white pepper comes from the Muntok area in Indonesia.
Flavor : mild with a certain pungency. As for other pepper grains, it is far better to buy them in peppercorns and to grind them by yourselves when needed.

Lada Putih Muntok dijual di Bien Manger
Headquarters : La Bastide, 48500 La Canourgue
R.C.S. Mende 430 476 804

Mau beli Lada atau Merica atau Sahang Muntok:
Terasi Bangka Sangrai, Merica, Rusip, Empek Empek
IBU FARIDA: HP 0815 969 1943 TELP (021) 781 0228
Jl Langga Raya No. 44 Rt 009 Rw 002 Lenteng Agung Jakarta Selatan 12610

Rumbai Pekanbaru (I)

Kebetulan waktu itu kakak ayah, Ismail Musa, kami panggil Pak We Mail, menjenguk kami dan beliau menawarkan ayah pekerjaan sebagai mekanik di Caltex, Rumbai Pekanbaru, Riau. Ayah saya berangkat ke Pekanbaru mengikuti test dan Alhamdulillah diterima sebagai pegawai. Pak We Mail lulusan Sekolah Tehnik (Bangunan) dan tinggal di perumahan perusahaan, barangkali beliau iba melihat rumah unik kami dan menu makanan kami. Setelah kenaikan kelas kami berangkat ke Pekanbaru naik pesawat terbang .... horeee, first time in my life, pesawat jenis Convair, jumlah tempat duduk sekitar tiga puluh dan kami bersepuluh, berarti sepertiga kapasitas tempat duduk. Kami berangkat dari Kemayoran Airport dan di Pekanbaru kami mendarat di Pelabuhan Udara Simpang Tiga, landasan pesawat masih menggunakan tanah yang dikeraskan.

Kisah lebih lanjut waktu di Rumbai Pekanbaru, silahkan klik disini.


Jakara (II)

Semester pertama SMA, Ayah mengajak pindah lagi ke Jakata, menurut orang tua saya, walaupun makan cukup tapi kalau kita terus tinggal di Rumbai akan susah melanjutkan sekolah nantinya. Tahun 1964 kami kembali ke Jakarta, kami tinggal dirumah adik ayah di Tomang Ancak (sekarang di belakang Rumah Sakit Kanker). Ayah membeli kavling di dekat situ dan membangun rumah.

Waktu tinggal di Tomang saya dan kakak sekolah di SMA 11 Filial, tempatnya di lokasi Sekolah Yasporbi di komplek Bank Indonesia Pancoran, dari Tomang kami naik bus Robur ke sekolah. Kebetulan di SMA ini kami juga merupakan angkatan pertama kelas satu, karena sekolah filial tersebut baru di resmikan. Sahabat saya satu angkatan antara lain Haris Supriadi, Sujudi dan Anton Lirayana.

Kisah lebih lanjut waktu di Jakarta, silahkan klik disini.


Rumbai Pekanbaru (II)

Tahun 1963 Ayah dan Mak sekeluarga pernah tinggal di Rumbai, karena Ayah bekerja di Caltex, dua tahun kemudian kami pindah lagi ke Jakarta. Kata orang Pekanbaru kalau sudah minum air Sungai Siak pasti akan kembali lagi.

Awal tahun 1975 saya melamar kerja ke PT Clatex Pacific Indonesia, beberapa pertimbangan saya antara lain adalah ada fasilitas perumahan, sekolah lengkap sampai SMA, fasilitas olahraga, kesehatan dan fasilitas umum lainnya dan yang paling menarik adalah kelengkapan computer baik hardware, software dan application systems serta kesempatan belajar yang sangat luas. Tanggal 18 Maret saya kerja di Caltex sebagai programmer dan mendapat assignment mengerjakan dan me-maintain Payroll System.

Kisah lebih lanjut waktu di Rumbai Pekanbaru, silahkan klik disini.


My HOME www.TB512.com
www.TB512.com was created as facility to learn how to develop a website, TB512property has been developed as a pilot project which consisted of advertising regarding house, shop, townhouse, apartment and land for sale etc. TB512 is a logo of Tebet Barat 5 No 12 South Jakarta, Indonesia 12810 which is the address of my home as well as my virtual office Safri Ishak telephone 021-8296762 or mobile phone 0815 1140 1617.
My BUSINESS Directory
Tebet Business Directory consists of addresses and phone numbers of favorite restaurants, traditional markets, hotels, offices, schools, super markets, malls, automotives, gardens, flowers, cakes, advertising, computers, salons, barber shops, cosmetics, banks, apartments etc.Originally it was compiled for personal purposes and then published to the internet as a gateway to search business directory and websites in Tebet and surrounding area.

Indonesian Folklore
http://indonesianfolklore.blogspot.com/
 
Bujang Katak
Folklore from Bangka Belitung
09-MAY-2009

There was an old woman. She lived alone in her hut. She was a poor farmer. She was getting older and getting weaker. She did not have husband but she prayed to god to give her a son. She hoped her son could help her work in the rice field.
“ God, please give me a son. I really want to have a son although he looks like a frog”, prayed the old woman.
God answered her pray. She was pregnant. Later the baby was born. Surprisingly the baby looked like a frog. His head and his skin were like frog’s head and skin. At first, the old woman was sad. However, later on she was grateful to god. She raised her son with great love. The baby grew as a kind man. He was very strong and obedient to his mother. People called him Bujang Katak. Bujang means a young man and Katak means a frog.
Later Bujang Katak was adult. He wanted to get married. However he did not want to marry the girl in his village. He wanted to marry one of the king’s seven daughters’!
He told his plan to his mother. She was sad. She knew that the king would reject his married proposal. But she did not want to see her son sad. And later they arrived at the palace. Bujang Katak told the king about the married proposal.
“ I really appreciate your courage young man. But I can not make any decision. I will ask my seven daughters to give their opinions and decisions”, said the king.
One by one all the seven daughters talked. The first daughter didn’t say good things about Bujang Katak. She insulted him. “You are so ugly. No wonder people call you Bujang Katak. You really look like a frog. I don’t want to have a husband who looks like a frog”, said the first daughter.
The second daughter also said bad things to him. “You are very poor. I don’t want to have a poor husband”. So the other daughters talked bad things about him.
Finally the youngest daughter had her turn to talk. She was the most beautiful and kindest daughter. She didn’t say bad things about him. She accepted Bujang Katak’s married proposal! “I will marry him, Father” said the youngest daughter to the king.
Everybody was surprised. All the elders’ sisters were laughing at her. The king was shocked! He never thought that one of his daughters would marry Bujang Katak. He wanted to cancel the married. So he asked Bujang Katak to do something very difficult.
“ I will let you marry my daughter but you have to build a golden bridge from your house to this palace”, said the king.
Bujang Katak and his mother went home. His mother was very sad and confused.
“ How can you build a golden bridge, Son?” she asked Bujang Katak. “Don’t worry, Mother. I will pray to God to help me”, said Bujang Katak.
Then Bujang Katak prayed days and nights. One night, amazing things happened. His frog’s skin removed from his body. His head also changed. He became a very handsome man. His mother burned the removed skin. Amazingly the skin changed into gold. They had a lot of gold. Slowly they built a bridge using the gold.
Finally the bridge was built from they house to the king’s palace. The youngest daughter was very happy. Her husband was very handsome and also very rich. He had a lot of gold. All her sisters were jealous. They were even more jealous when the king asked Bujang Katak to be the new king.

 
 
Kelingking
Folklore from Bangka Belitung
http://indonesianfolklore.blogspot.com/2008/10/kelingking.html


A long time ago in Bangka Belitung lived a husband and a wife. They were poor and they did not have any children yet. Days and nights they prayed to God. They really wanted to have a child.
“God, please give us a child, even though he is only as big as a little finger,” prayed the husband.
Their dream came true! The wife was pregnant. However they were surprised when they saw the baby. He was so small. He was as big as a little finger.
“You prayed to God to give us a child, although he is as big as a little finger right? Be thankful to God. Let’s love him. How will you name him then?” asked the wife.
“You are right. We have to be grateful. Well, I will name him Kelingking,” said the husband. Kelingking means little finger.
Time passed by and Kelingking did not grow much. His body was still physically small compared to other kids. Though he was so small, Kelingking ate like adults. He ate much food. And that made his parents really worried. They were poor and sometimes they could not eat because they had to give their food to Kelingking.
“I cannot hold it anymore. I want to put Kelingking in the jungle. Let him live there. I think he can survive,” said the father.
In the morning, Kelingking and his father went to the jungle. When they arrived, the father asked Kelingking to cut down a very big tree. When Kelingking was busy cutting down the tree, his father silently went home. The father thought that Kelingking could not cut down the big tree. The father was sure that Kelingking would be lost in the jungle. But he was wrong! In the morning Kelingking suddenly showed up in front of the house. And he brought the big tree also!
“Father, where do you want me to put this big tree?” asked Kelingking. The father was surprised. He asked Kelingking to put the tree in the backyard. Kelingking then went inside the house. As always he ate all the food and that made his father got angry. He then had another idea.
“Kelingking, let’s go to the mountain. I need a big stone from there.” Kelingking was an obedient kid. He followed his father to go to the mountain. When they arrived, his father pointed a big stone. The stone was as big as their house!
“I want you to bring that big stone to our house,” asked the father. When Kelingking was trying to bring the stone, the father immediately ran home. At night, when the father was sleeping , suddenly he heard Kelingking’s voice.“Father, I’m home. Where do you want me to put this big stone?”
This time Kelingking’s father realized his mistake. It was true that Kelingking’s body was small and he ate much food. But he was a nice kid and he had great power. With that power, they could get a job and had a lot of money. The father then apologized to Kelingking. Since then they always worked together. ***

 
Umpit and the Wild Hogs
Folklore from Bangka Belitung
http://indonesianfolklore.blogspot.com/2008/09/umpit-and-wild-hogs.html

 

A long time ago in Bangka, lived a hunter. His name was Umpit.
He was called Umpit because he always went hunting using his blowpipe. The villagers liked him very much. Umpit often hunted the wild hogs. Those animals often destroyed the villagers’ plantation. After Umpit killed the wild hogs, the villagers gave him some money.
Pak Raje was the richest man in the village. Nobody liked him. He was very stingy. He did not like to donate his money. One day he asked Umpit to hunt the wild hogs. Umpit agreed. At night he was prepared and waited at the Pak Raje’s plantation.
While he was waiting, suddenly seven wild hogs entered the plantation. Umpit prepared his blowpipe.
Then, whoosssh! One of the hogs was shot.
Amazingly, the hog disappeared.
Umpit could not find the hog anywhere.
However he found blood shed on the ground. He followed the blood trail. It went to the jungle. Finally the blood trail stopped in a big cave. Slowly he entered the cave. Then he heard a voice.
“ Who are you?”
“ My name is Umpit.
I’m looking for a wounded hog. I shot it using my blowpipe.”
“ So, it’s you! You are the man who hurt my daughter!”
Slowly a woman appeared in front of him.
“ Come, follow me,” said the woman.
She then pointed a girl. She was wounded. Her leg was bleeding.
“ She was not a real hog. We are the goddess of the jungle. I will forgive you, but you have to cure my daughter.”
Umpit was so scared. He did not know that it was not the real hog. He then took some leaves. He knew some medication because his parents taught him before.
He put the leaves on the wound. After a while, the girl was cured. The woman then gave Umpit a present. Umpit immediately went home. He ran very fast.
At home, Umpit immediately opened the present. Wow! He got jewelries, gold and diamond. Umpit sold the jewelries and now he became a rich man.
Pak Raje heard that Umpit had become a rich man. He asked Umpit how he became rich. After he knew all about it, he borrowed Umpit’s blowpipe.
He waited at his plantation, and he shot a wild hog.
He followed the blood trail and arrived at the cave. He met the woman and the injured girl. Pak Raje was asked to cure the girl. But he could not do that, and that made the woman angry. She asked all the wild hogs to attack Pak Raje.
Pak Raje ran very fast. He went to Umpit’s house. He asked Umpit to help him from the wild hogs. He agreed to help if only Pak Raje donated some of his money. Pak Raje said yes and he also promised he would be helpful to the villagers. ***

 
Putri Pinang Gading
Folklore from Bangka Belitung
http://indonesianfolklore.blogspot.com/2008/06/putri-pinang-gading.html

 

A long time ago in Belitung, there were a couple of husband and wife. The husband was a fisherman. The husbands name was Pak Inda and the wife’s name was Bu Tumina. They lived alone in their house. They did not have any children.
Pak Inda always went fishing in the morning. And in one morning as always he went to the sea. On the way there, he stumbled on a stick of bamboo.
This is dangerous. Someone may get hurt with it, said Pak Inda. He threw the bamboo to the sea. Then he continued walking. Again, he stumbled on a bamboo. “Why are there a lot of bamboos here?” asked Pak Inda to himself. He wanted to throw the bamboo to the sea. Before he did that, he looked at the bamboo carefully. I think this is the same bamboo I threw awhile ago. How can it be here again? Pak Inda was confused. He then threw the bamboo to the sea. Amazingly the bamboo kept on coming back to him. He knew that this bamboo was different from other bamboos so he brought it home. At home, Pak Inda told his wife about the bamboo. Bu Tumina suggested him to put the bamboo in a box. They put the box in their bed room. In the morning, they heard a baby crying. Pak Inda and Bu Tumina looked everywhere to find the baby. Finally they found a baby girl inside the box where they put the bamboo. However the bamboo was gone.
Pak Inda and Bu Tumina were very happy. They named the baby girl Putri Pinang Gading. Pak Inda and Bu Tumina took care of her with great love. Even though Putri Pinang Gading was their only child, they did not spoil her.
They taught her to be independent. They also taught her how to protect herself from wild animals. That was why Putri Pinang Gading grew as a great girl. One day, a giant bird attacked their village. The bird was wild. It hurt many people. Nobody dared to kill the giant bird. Putri Pinang Gading knew she had to do something. She wanted to kill the bird.
Be careful my daughter. We love you very much and we don’t want anything bad happen to you. Here, take this arrow with you. The arrow has poison and it can kill the bird. Just aim it at the bird’s heart, said Pak Inda. He knew his daughter could do that.
She was skillful with arrows. Putri Pinang Gading then went to the village. She was waiting for the bird. The villagers were scared. They asked her to be careful. Suddenly, the giant bird was flying right above her. The bird tried to attack her. Putri Pinang Gading then prepared her arrow. She aimed at the bird’s heart.
Wooosshhh! The arrow hit the bird’s heart! The bird fell on the ground and died instantly. The villagers were very happy. They thanked Putri Pinang Gading for her great action. On the ground where the giant bird fell, bamboo plants grew. The bamboos were poisonous. Later the villagers named the area as Membalong. It means poisonous bamboos. Membalong is now a district in Bangka Belitung. ***

 
WIKIPEDIA
Bangka Belitung Islands


seRumpun seBalai


Bangka-Belitung Islands is a province of Indonesia, which includes two main islands, Bangka and Belitung, and several smaller ones that lie from the east of Sumatra to the northeast of South Sumatra province. The Bangka Strait separates Sumatra and Bangka, and the Gaspar Strait separates Bangka and Belitung. The South China Sea is to the north, the Java Sea is to the south, and Borneo to the east is separated from Belitung by the Karimata Strait.

The province was formerly part of South Sumatra, but became a separate province along with Banten and Gorontalo in 2000. In 2004 its population was 1,012,655. The capital is Pangkal Pinang.

These islands have significant mining (the largest producers of tin in Indonesia). They also produce white pepper CPO etc.

Bangka Belitung also has many beaches and smaller islands which have attracted tourists from around the world. The famous beaches are Matras beach, Parai beach, Tanjung Pesona beach, Batu Bedaun beach, Remodong beach, Pasir Padi Beach, Tanjung Kelian Beach, Rebo beach, Telok Uber Beach and many others.

Administrative divisions

Bangka-Belitung is divided into six regencies (kabupaten) and 1 city (kota):

* Bangka (regency seat: Sungailiat (town))
* West Bangka (regency seat: Muntok)
* South Bangka (regency seat: Toboali)
* Central Bangka (regency seat: Koba)
* Belitung (regency seat : Tanjung Pandan)
* East Belitung (regency seat: Manggar)
* Pangkal Pinang (city)

 
 
WIKIPEDIA

Advertising
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Advertising is a form of communication that typically attempts to persuade potential customers to purchase or to consume more of a particular brand of product or service. Many advertisements are designed to generate increased consumption of those products and services through the creation and reinforcement of "brand image" and "brand loyalty". For these purposes, advertisements sometimes embed their persuasive message with factual information. Every major medium is used to deliver these messages, including television, radio, cinema, magazines, newspapers, video games, the Internet and billboards. Advertising is often placed by an advertising agency on behalf of a company or other organization.

Advertisements are seen on the seats of shopping carts, on the walls of an airport walkway, on the sides of buses,and are heard in telephone hold messages and in-store public address systems. Advertisements are often placed anywhere an audience can easily or frequently access visual, audio and printed information.

Organizations that frequently spend large sums of money on advertising that sells what is not, strictly speaking, a product or service include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations, and military recruiters. Non-profit organizations are not typical advertising clients, and may rely on free modes of persuasion, such as public service announcements.

Advertising spending has increased dramatically in recent years. In 2006, spending on advertising has been estimated at $155 billion in the United States and $385 billion worldwide, and the latter to exceed $500 billion by 2010.

While advertising can be seen as necessary for economic growth, it is not without social costs. Unsolicited Commercial Email and other forms of spam have become so prevalent as to have become a major nuisance to users of these services, as well as being a financial burden on internet service providers. Advertising is increasingly invading public spaces, such as schools, which some critics argue is a form of child exploitation.

Egyptians used papyrus to make sales messages and wall posters. Commercial messages and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of Pompei and ancient Arabia. Lost and found advertising on papyrus was common in Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. Wall or rock painting for commercial advertising is another manifestation of an ancient advertising form, which is present to this day in many parts of Asia, Africa, and South America. The tradition of wall painting can be traced back to Indian rock art paintings that date back to 4000 BCE.[5]

History

As the towns and cities of the Middle Ages began to grow, and the general populace was unable to read, signs that today would say cobbler, miller, tailor or blacksmith would use an image associated with their trade such as a boot, a suit, a hat, a clock, a diamond, a horse shoe, a candle or even a bag of flour. Fruits and vegetables were sold in the city square from the backs of carts and wagons and their proprietors used street callers or town criers to announce their whereabouts for the convenience of the customers.

As education became an apparent need and reading, as well printing developed, advertising expanded to include handbills. In the 17th century advertisements started to appear in weekly newspapers in England. These early print advertisements were used mainly to promote books and newspapers, which became increasingly affordable with advances in the printing press; and medicines, which were increasingly sought after as disease ravaged Europe. However, false advertising and so-called "quack" advertisements became a problem, which ushered in the regulation of advertising content.
Edo period advertising flyer from 1806 for a traditional medicine called Kinseitan

As the economy expanded during the 19th century, advertising grew alongside. In the United States, the success of this advertising format eventually led to the growth of mail-order advertising.

In June 1836, French newspaper La Presse is the first to include paid advertising in its pages, allowing it to lower its price, extend its readership and increase its profitability and the formula was soon copied by all titles. Around 1840, Volney Palmer established a predecessor to advertising agencies in Boston. Around the same time, in France, Charles-Louis Havas extended the services of his news agency, Havas to include advertisement brokerage, making it the first French group to organize. At first, agencies were brokers for advertisement space in newspapers. N. W. Ayer & Son was the first full-service agency to assume responsibility for advertising content. N.W. Ayer opened in 1869, and was located in Philadelphia.

At the turn of the century, there were few career choices for women in business; however, advertising was one of the few. Since women were responsible for most of the purchasing done in their household, advertisers and agencies recognized the value of women's insight during the creative process. In fact, the first American advertising to use a sexual sell was created by a woman – for a soap product. Although tame by today's standards, the advertisement featured a couple with the message "The skin you love to touch".
A print advertisement for the 1913 issue of the Encyclopædia Britannica

In the early 1920s, the first radio stations were established by radio equipment manufacturers and retailers who offered programs in order to sell more radios to consumers. As time passed, many non-profit organizations followed suit in setting up their own radio stations, and included: schools, clubs and civic groups. When the practice of sponsoring programs was popularised, each individual radio program was usually sponsored by a single business in exchange for a brief mention of the business' name at the beginning and end of the sponsored shows. However, radio station owners soon realised they could earn more money by selling sponsorship rights in small time allocations to multiple businesses throughout their radio station's broadcasts, rather than selling the sponsorship rights to single businesses per show.

This practice was carried over to television in the late 1940s and early 1950s. A fierce battle was fought between those seeking to commercialise the radio and people who argued that the radio spectrum should be considered a part of the commons – to be used only non-commercially and for the public good. The United Kingdom pursued a public funding model for the BBC, originally a private company, the British Broadcasting Company, but incorporated as a public body by Royal Charter in 1927. In Canada, advocates like Graham Spry were likewise able to persuade the federal government to adopt a public funding model, creating the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. However, in the United States, the capitalist model prevailed with the passage of the Communications Act of 1934 which created the Federal Communications Commission.[8] To placate the socialists, the U.S. Congress did require commercial broadcasters to operate in the "public interest, convenience, and necessity". Public broadcasting now exists in the United States due to the 1967 Public Broadcasting Act which led to the Public Broadcasting Service and National Public Radio.

In the early 1950s, the DuMont Television Network began the modern trend of selling advertisement time to multiple sponsors. Previously, DuMont had trouble finding sponsors for many of their programs and compensated by selling smaller blocks of advertising time to several businesses. This eventually became the standard for the commercial television industry in the United States. However, it was still a common practice to have single sponsor shows, such as The United States Steel Hour. In some instances the sponsors exercised great control over the content of the show - up to and including having one's advertising agency actually writing the show. The single sponsor model is much less prevalent now, a notable exception being the Hallmark Hall of Fame.

The 1960s saw advertising transform into a modern approach in which creativity was allowed to shine, producing unexpected messages that made advertisements more tempting to consumers' eyes. The Volkswagen ad campaign—featuring such headlines as "Think Small" and "Lemon" (which were used to describe the appearance of the car)—ushered in the era of modern advertising by promoting a "position" or "unique selling proposition" designed to associate each brand with a specific idea in the reader or viewer's mind. This period of American advertising is called the Creative Revolution and its archetype was William Bernbach who helped create the revolutionary Volkswagen ads among others. Some of the most creative and long-standing American advertising dates to this period.
Public advertising on Times Square, New York City.

The late 1980s and early 1990s saw the introduction of cable television and particularly MTV. Pioneering the concept of the music video, MTV ushered in a new type of advertising: the consumer tunes in for the advertising message, rather than it being a by-product or afterthought. As cable and satellite television became increasingly prevalent, specialty channels emerged, including channels entirely devoted to advertising, such as QVC, Home Shopping Network, and ShopTV Canada.

Marketing through the Internet opened new frontiers for advertisers and contributed to the "dot-com" boom of the 1990s. Entire corporations operated solely on advertising revenue, offering everything from coupons to free Internet access. At the turn of the 21st century, a number of websites including the search engine Google, started a change in online advertising by emphasizing contextually relevant, unobtrusive ads intended to help, rather than inundate, users. This has led to a plethora of similar efforts and an increasing trend of interactive advertising.

The share of advertising spending relative to GDP has changed little across large changes in media. For example, in the U.S. in 1925, the main advertising media were newspapers, magazines, signs on streetcars, and outdoor posters. Advertising spending as a share of GDP was about 2.9 percent. By 1998, television and radio had become major advertising media. Nonetheless, advertising spending as a share of GDP was slightly lower—about 2.4 percent.

A recent advertising innovation is "guerrilla marketing", which involve unusual approaches such as staged encounters in public places, giveaways of products such as cars that are covered with brand messages, and interactive advertising where the viewer can respond to become part of the advertising message. This reflects an increasing trend of interactive and "embedded" ads, such as via product placement, having consumers vote through text messages, and various innovations utilizing social network services such as MySpace.

 

Garden
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the display, cultivation, and enjoyment of plants and other forms of nature. The garden can incorporate both natural and man-made materials. The most common form is known as a residential garden. Western gardens are almost universally based around plants. Zoos, which display wild animals in simulated natural habitats, were formerly called zoological gardens.

See traditional types of eastern gardens, such as Zen gardens, use plants such as parsley. Xeriscape gardens use local native plants that do not require irrigation or extensive use of other resources while still providing the benefits of a garden environment. Gardens may exhibit structural enhancements, sometimes called follies, including water features such as fountains, ponds (with or without fish), waterfalls or creeks, dry creek beds, statuary, arbors, trellises and more.

Some gardens are for ornamental purposes only, while some gardens also produce food crops, sometimes in separate areas, or sometimes intermixed with the ornamental plants. Food-producing gardens are distinguished from farms by their smaller scale, more labor-intensive methods, and their purpose (enjoyment of a hobby rather than produce for sale).

Gardening is the activity of growing and maintaining the garden. This work is done by an amateur or professional gardener. A gardener might also work in a non-garden setting, such as a park, a roadside embankment, or other public space. Landscape architecture is a related professional activity with landscape architects tending to specialise in design for public and corporate clients.

The term "garden" in British English refers to an enclosed area of land, usually adjoining a building. This would be referred to as a yard in American English. Flower gardens combine plants of different heights, colors, textures, and fragrances to create interest and delight the senses.

 

Flower
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A flower, also known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). The biological function of a flower is to mediate the union of male sperm with female ovum in order to produce seeds. The process begins with pollination, is followed by fertilization, leading to the formation and dispersal of the seeds. For the higher plants, seeds are the next generation, and serve as the primary means by which individuals of a species are dispersed across the landscape. The grouping of flowers on a plant are called the inflorescence.

In addition to serving as the reproductive organs of flowering plants, flowers have long been admired and used by humans, mainly to beautify their environment but also as a source of food.

Flower specialization and pollination

Each flower has a specific design which best encourages the transfer of its pollen. Cleistogamous flowers are self pollinated, after which, they may or may not open. Many Viola and some Salvia species are known to have these types of flowers.

Entomophilous flowers attract and use insects, bats, birds or other animals to transfer pollen from one flower to the next. Flowers commonly have glands called nectaries on their various parts that attract these animals. Some flowers have patterns, called nectar guides, that show pollinators where to look for nectar. Flowers also attract pollinators by scent and color. Still other flowers use mimicry to attract pollinators. Some species of orchids, for example, produce flowers resembling female bees in color, shape, and scent. Flowers are also specialized in shape and have an arrangement of the stamens that ensures that pollen grains are transferred to the bodies of the pollinator when it lands in search of its attractant (such as nectar, pollen, or a mate). In pursuing this attractant from many flowers of the same species, the pollinator transfers pollen to the stigmas—arranged with equally pointed precision—of all of the flowers it visits.

Anemophilous flowers use the wind to move pollen from one flower to the next, examples include the grasses, Birch trees, Ragweed and Maples. They have no need to attract pollinators and therefore tend not to be "showy" flowers. Male and female reproductive organs are generally found in separate flowers, the male flowers having a number of long filaments terminating in exposed stamens, and the female flowers having long, feather-like stigmas. Whereas the pollen of entomophilous flowers tends to be large-grained, sticky, and rich in protein (another "reward" for pollinators), anemophilous flower pollen is usually small-grained, very light, and of little nutritional value to insects.

 

Wedding Photography
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Wedding photography is a major commercial endeavor that supports the bulk of the efforts for many photography studios or independent photographers.

History

Like the technology of photography itself, the practice of wedding photography has evolved and grown since the invention of the art form in 1826 by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce. In fact, an early photograph, recorded some 14 years after the fact, may be a recreation for the camera of the 1840 wedding of Queen Victoria to Prince Albert. However in the early days of photography, most couples of more humble means did not hire a photographer to record the actual wedding itself.

Until the later half of the 19th century, most people didn’t pose for formal wedding photos during the wedding. Rather they might pose for a formal photo in their best clothes before or after a wedding. In the late 1860s, more couples started posing in their wedding clothes or sometimes hired a photographer to come to the wedding venue.

Due to the nature of the bulky equipment and lighting issues, wedding photography was largely a studio practice for most of the late 1800s. Over time, technology improved, but many couples still might only pose for a single wedding portrait. Wedding albums started becoming more commonplace towards the 1880s. By then, the photographer would start including the wedding party in the photographs. Often the wedding gifts would be laid out and recorded in the photographs as well.

In the beginning of the 20th century, color photography became available, but color photography was still too unreliable and expensive so most wedding photography was still practiced in black and white. The concept of capturing the wedding "event" came about after the Second World War. Using film roll technology and improved lighting techniques available with the invention of the compact flash bulb, often photographers would simply show up at a wedding and try to sell the photos later. Despite the initial low quality photographs that often resulted, the competition forced the studio photographers to start working on location.

Initially, professional studio photographers might bring a lot of bulky equipment, thus limiting their ability to record the entire event. Even candid photos were more often staged after the ceremony. In the 1970s the more modern approach to recording the entire wedding event started evolving into the practice as we know it today.

Technology

During the film era, photographers favored color negative film and medium-format cameras, especially by Hasselblad. Today, many more weddings are photographed with digital SLR cameras as the digital convenience provides quick detection of lighting mistakes and allows creative approaches to be reviewed immediately.

In spite of diminishing film use, some photographers continue to shoot with film as they prefer the film aesthetic, while others are of the opinion that negative film captures more information than digital technology, with less margin for exposure error. Certainly true in some cases, it should be noted that exposure latitude inherent in a camera's native RAW image format (which allows for more under- and over- exposure than JPE) varies from manufacturer to manufacturer. All forms of RAW have a degree of exposure latitude which exceeds slide film - to which digital capture is commonly compared.

Currently however, it is fair to say that many professional labs have a greater capacity to provide services in post-production for film compared with digital[citation needed], such as quickly generate adequate prints in the event of some over- or under- exposure. This should change over time, with manufacturers like Kodak announcing a commitment to further develop streamlined services in the area of professional digital lab output.

Technology has evolved with the use of remote triggers and flashes. Wedding photographers are now able to take advantage of travelling light and having the ability to use creative lighting.

 

EXIT